What is a Copyright?

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This weeks topic is the importance of copyright. Many people have their own interpretation of why copyrights exist, but what is the history being in? According to Copyright World, the creation of the copyright started in 1787. This article explained how our founding fathers were always creating new ideas and concepts, and in order to protect them, they had to be secured by the law. George Washington signed the first copyright in 1780, and the concept of copyright took off ever since. Many people also have their own interpretation of what a copyright is, but do we actually really know? Copyright World also credited the World Intellectual Property Organization for their definition, which is, “a legal term describing rights given to the creators for their literary and artistic works”. This basically means the owner of the created work owns the rights to it, protecting it from being used or sold by somebody else. I like this article because it also talks about why copyright is so important. According to Copyright World, it is our legal write to protect our work, and I think we can all agree on that. We have have created something in our lives, whether that be a homework assignment or an essay, and we wouldn’t want somebody taking it and passing it off as their own! Especially, like the article mentioned, if the idea can make you money. Copyright prevents people from making a profit off of somebody else’s work, which is why copyrights are so important for companies, big or small. Thats also why copyrights have to be in affect for so long, which is usually 50-70 years after the death of the original owner. However, copyrights can be passed down. Overall I really liked this article because it broke down both the history and the importance of copyrights and their usage.

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I chose this source because I find it interesting that their our limits of what you can copyright. 5 Things That Can’t Be Copyrighted by Jonathan Bailey broke down the things that can’t be copyrighted and why, which I thought were really useful to know. The first thing was titles and names. Bailey wrote that the reason behind this was copyrights protect creative content, not the work that is designed for the market place. Also, for example, think of all of the people in the world. Can you imagine if they all copyrighted their name and everyone had to be named something different? It would be a hassle, especially to check it! Titles for a business or company can however be given a trademark to help eliminate confusion. Ideas also can’t be copyrighted because they aren’t tangible things. It has to be written down for, mainly because we can’t tell what somebody else has going on in their mind. People are allowed to have similar ideas to a certain extent. Like for example, Bailey mentioned that you could make a story about a wizard boy who went to school with his friends, but can’t use the same characters or plots as Harry Potter. Works by the federal U.S government can not be copyrighted either. This is because taxpayer money is spent on creating the ideas. Works without authorship can’t be copyrighted either. Work, as stated by Bailey, needs to have creative elements to it, like you can’t copyright a calendar, but you could copyright the pictures that are in it. Lastly, fashion can not be copyrighted. Certain patterns may be copyrighted, or a companies logo, but not the actual piece of clothing. It’s more so the style that can’t be copyrighted, mainly because it’s seen as an artistic right. Overall, I thought this article was really organized and helpful because I didn’t know you couldn’t copyright certain things.

 

Privacy: Why The U.S Doesn’t Want Us To Have It

Source 1

This week’s topic in class was about online privacy, and these article definitely relates to that topic. The article, “How Much Privacy Do You Really Have Online?”, by Malin Johnsson talks about what internet privacy really is and what laws and regulations the government needs to take about our privacy. This article pointed put how there currently aren’t any global privacy laws, which relates to the debate in last weeks article about who should have privacy on the internet and who shouldn’t. Countries create their own privacy laws, which end up not being very effective anyway. As mentioned in this article, the internet is here to stay, so we need to fix these privacy laws, and fast. In last week’s article, the Pew Research Center claimed that more and more people are becoming active members of social media, which help proves that we need privacy laws immediately. Johnsson defined internet privacy as, ” a matter of being able to do whatever you want on the internet, within legal reforms, without anyone being able to track or store your information without consent”. Tracking information may be beneficial to companies, but is wrong if the information owner doesn’t know about it. This article also talks about the different ways the U.S vs Europe track people online. The U.S views privacy as a consumer protection issue, when Europe views it as a basic human right. Only privacy should be viewed as any other property right. Europe is taking action, why isn’t the U.S? The internet can be a scary place, terrorists can freely recruit and it’s getting harder and harder to trust people online. Again, this article related to the topic of privacy be action needs to be taken to secure the safety of all it’s citizens, and it needs to happen now. I chose this article because it talked about privacy from a viewpoint of a knowledgable user. It was easy to understand, but brought up very well constructed points.

Source 2

“On Internet Privacy, Be Very Afraid” by Liz Mineo also relates to the topic of privacy. Mineo states that the United States has less privacy laws then other country, which was also supported by the article above. Mineo claimed that in April, Congress voted for internet  providers to be able to collect and sell their customer’s data. The European Union, on the other hand, combated Google in the summer with a $2.7 billion antitrust fine. As you can see, there is a difference in attitudes about online privacy. As talked about in this weeks class, this article presented an interview about surveillance, which was mentioned in Pew Research Center. Nothing has changed in the way the NSA is collecting data. No action has been taken. We should be alarmed by this, because it involves us, the people. Everyone is under constant surveillance. There certain actions the government cant take, like controlling peoples every move. But there are actions they can take, but, as Schneir claimed, the government is not always effective. Companies lack morality and are willing to do whatever they can to make their business thrive. Unlike Europe, the U.S doesn’t see privacy as a human right, they see it as a business strategy. Consumers feel powerless against companies, because they know they have advantages to getting any information they want. Most of our data is out of our control, we don’t always have control of where it goes. And that’s the issue. Again, this source relates to this weeks topic of privacy because it shows the lack of the U.S’s actions to help secure the safety of it’s people. I chose this article because I like how it included an interview, it gave candid thoughts about the issue of privacy and support of both the U.S and Europe’s viewpoints on the topic.

Grammar Sites: You Can Study Online?

The internet is an amazing resource for not just entertainment but for education purposes. The internet, as we all know, contains an extremely large among of information. Just by typing in one work or topic, you can get thousands, even millions, of responses. Basically any question that one might have, they will easily be able to find the answer or something related to the answer online.

It’s not wonder that there any many different resources for school subjects online. I have taken so many practice tests online, along with watching videos that explain a topic, online tutoring, and finding useful diagrams to break down what I am learning.

The two grammar resources that I chose were OWL Perdue Online Writing Lab and Grammar Bytes. Grammar Bytes, personally, is my favorite to use. It breaks down the grammar concept, giving reasoning as to why a certain rule might exist. It will give the definition of the desired term, and then give examples of it in use. That is why I like the site so much; it gives clear cut examples that always are straightforward. It also gives examples, depending on the term, that may not appear often, but can occur. This is extremely helpful, because sometimes our teachers may not teach us all the rules related to a grammar concept, especially in class time is short and there is a lot of material to cover. It also gives exercises that can serve as practice quizzes. The way to really grasps grammar concepts, at least for myself, is through actually using them in context. These can help students if they need more practice but already did all the exercises in their homework assignments or textbooks. These assignments also have extra handouts which give more explanations and sample sentences.

OWL Grammar is also convenient, not more so for definitions and explanations. OWL Grammar does a good job at explaining concepts. It gives detailed descriptions and sample sentences. It says what certain grammar rules can and can’t do. For examples, it will break down all what an adjective can be used for and what an adjective can do. This makes the full use of the term extremely clear. The rules are presented in a list form which helps with the memorization process. However, I was unable to find practice quizzes on this site. And if they are on this site, they are very hard to find. This will not motivate users to do practices quizzes if they are not easily accessible.

Overall, I would recommend using this sites to help check or study grammar. If I had to choose one, I would choose Grammar Bytes due to its abundant resources.

Is This The End For Net Neutrality?

Net neutrality, sounds pretty self explanatory, doesn’t it? Basically, net neutrality is the principle that states that all internet sites should be treated equally. This includes companies and sites not blocking or slowing down other sites that may be a competitor. However, doing this would put that company at an advantage and would benefit their own service, so obviously there are companies out there that are doing this.

Netflix is a great example of this. According to “Network Neutrality, Explained” by Timothy B. Lee, Netflix in 2014 paid both Comcast and Verizon to make sure that Netflix’s content would smoothly play due to incidents where there was a decline in speed processing on Netflix. The reason that Netflix did this was because they saw themselves at a disadvantage when it came to their service. However, now they are at an unfair advantage from the rest of their competitors.

Examples like this one perfectly some up why net neutrality is needed. Larger companies will always dominate all the rest with their ability to improve their sites by blocking or slowing down others. Network neutrality also allows for sites to be easily created by many individuals. For example, the article also pointed out that net neutrality is what allowed Mark Zuckerberg to create Facebook in his dorm. He didn’t have to go out of his way to make sure his site worked properly, all sites were treated the exact same. If net neutrality did’t exist when he made Facebook, it could have never taken off or got any users, especially not a large amount. Net neutrality allows for innovation, which is why the internet is constantly growing and changing. Without it, only large companies would dominate and take all of the business, which would cause a lack of site diversity. Net neutrality is needed if the internet wants to further expand it’s content.

Net neutrality certainly is a hot topic in politics. Republicans and democrats are both for net neutrality, however republicans don’t want to entirely ban the blocking and slowing down of sites. Donald Trump is currently working to loosen restrictions dealing with the internet. In the article, “Data Privacy: Is Trump’s FCC Redefining Public Interest as Business Interest?”, it was stated that Donald Trump is refusing now to make more balanced laws for net neutrality and is starting to favor those against the idea.

I’m not going to talk political opinions here, but I will say that the ending of net neutrality will certainly have it’s consequences. Like I said before, big corporations will dominate smaller ones, not even allowing them a chance to reach an audience. Knowing that Trump is a “business man”, it’s clear to see why this might be something that he would want to enforce potentially.

There are pro’s and con’s to each side of this, such as getting rid of net neutrality would make it harder for inappropriate and objectionable sites to thrive and become popular online. However, getting rid of net neutrality ultimately reduces innovation and censors freedom of speech. I understand why this topic would have a heavy debate, because they both have their advantages and disadvantages. At the end, whether net neutrality lives on or not, the internet should have the opportunity to grow and benefit the people in the best way possible.

 

The Sources of Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is a concept that I have been exposed to ever since I was allowed to use the internet. In elementary school, I remember sitting in class listening to my teacher talk about the “do’s and don’ts” on the internet. The biggest don’t I remember receiving was bullying my peers online. It was burnt into my brain that it is wrong to say something on the internet that would hurt somebody else’s feelings. After a while, it all just seemed like common sense; don’t say anything online that would hurt somebody else’s feelings. While this all seems like common knowledge, cyberbullying continues to happen every single day, and it’s only getting worse.

Cyberbullying can occur in numerous locations. Just as it can happen in a more private setting, like over text message, it can happen on public social media sites. The article, “Cyberbullying-What Social Networks Are the Worst?” broke down where cyberbullying is most likely to happen, and most importantly, why. I was shocked to see Facebook on the list of the top five social media sites where cyberbullying occurs. I always thought of Facebook as a place where people kept others updated on their lives and stayed in touch with people from all over the world. However, different social media sites lead to different forms of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying comes in many different forms and is dependent on the social media platform and the audience.

One of the most common forms of cyberbullying on sites such as Facebook and Instagram is comments. Many people, usually teenage girls, comment negative responses to peoples profile pictures or selfies. A common trend for teenagers, more so for young teens, is adding hashtags, such as “rate me”, that are asking for the input of others. Many take advantage of this to post rude or inappropriate comments to bring down the self esteem of others. Cyberbullying can also be done more indirectly. A common form of cyberbullying on twitter, for example, is subtweeting. Subtweeting, the author pointed out, is when, “a user taunts or harasses another without mentioning the target’s name”. This means that someone is directing negative comments towards somebody without directly saying their name. A common trend for all of the forms of cyberbullying addressed in the article is that the bully is looking for attention. They go out of their way to publicly embarrass somebody else.

The more social media platforms are being created, the higher the risk for cyberbullying to occur. Many people bully others online because it’s easier to do than to say mean comments to their face. Anonymous sites such as Ask.fm or Reddit make it very easy for kids to get away with bullying. The bully can say whatever they want to whoever they want without fear of getting in trouble because their identity is a secret.

The more people stay quiet about cyberbullying, the more it’s just going to keep occurring. We all need to speak up when we see cyberbullying happen, even if it doesn’t involve us directly. Many articles, such as this one, tend to focus on what parents can do to stop cyberbullying from happening. But sometimes by the time parents get involved, it’s too late. This is mainly because parents aren’t typically on these social media sights until they have a reason to be. Teenagers are usually the ones active ob social media sites, so they are the ones who need to take action in preventing cyberbullying. As presented in this article, 30% would not report if they saw cyberbullying occurring. Teens need to learn that it’s okay to speak up, because awareness is the only way to prevent cyberbullying from happening.

I’m going to leave this blog posy with a question, have you ever seen cyberbullying on the internet, and did you do anything about it?

The Possibilities of Blogging

When I first heard of blogging, I didn’t really see the purpose. I wondered how people had to time to create and actively post on their blogs, and didn’t really know any benefits that came with blogging. However, my opinion on blogging is definitely changing, and I am starting to see how important blogging really is. In the article, Blogging To Establish Your Digital Identity, it mentioned the benefits blogging can have on getting a job. This is something I never really thought of before. A blog can serve as an online portfolio, displaying ones accomplishments, awards, and experience in a more personal manner. We have every right to show off the things we worked hard to achieve! The article also stated that, “blogging shows that you have taken the time to learn how to write for a wider, non-academic audience and allows you to establish a unique brand that sets you apart from other applicants with a similar education”. Blogging is a way to make us stand out from one another. It’s not a standard resume that you have to make and isn’t the same format as everybody else’s. It is an optional “hobby” that allows you to be be creative but still professional. It also helps develop important skills, such as writing, critical thinking, and opinion forming. These skills are needed when looking for and sustaining a career. In fact, in NACE,Job Outlook 2017, chart 38 displays attributes employers look for on a candidates resume. According to this chart, writing skills are more important than verbal skills. If one has a blog that they actively use and write on, it will help develop strong writing skills that could increase their chance of getting selected for a job. After reading all this, I was motivated to start a blog, because I want to stand out around those around me. Blogging isn’t useless, it can help recruiters see that you are passionate about your work and willing to put in more work than others! A common theme that was repeated in this article, and anything else discussing blogging, is creativity and originality. It’s another way to create an online identity and present yourself to a chosen online audience. In “Digital Literacy, Engagement, And Digital Identity Development”, it discussed the importance of developing a digital identity. If we don’t engage in digital literacy with peers or teachers, we won’t get experience communicating professionally online. The more we bring ourselves out of our comfort zone, the more we can learn and establish a digital identity. Yes, writing takes time. But, doesn’t everything in life? “Practice makes perfect”, a simple quote that is relevant here. In order to become better writers, we need to experience writing in a variety of settings. Good writing takes time, we just have to be willing to put in the effort.

Googling Myself… Or So I Thought

Google obviously contains an enormous amount of information, so it’s I’m not surprised by what happened when I googled myself. Okay, maybe I’m a little surprised by the content, but not by the fact that I had to search so much to find information about myself when googling my name. When I googled, “Jessica Deemer”, the first couple of links that came up were about a murder. Apparently, in 2008, a girl named Jessica Deemer was murdered by her ex husband. Although this happened nine years ago, it was still the first topic that came up when I googled my name. In fact, almost all of the links on the first google page were articles related to the murder. I have to admit, typing my name and seeing an obituary come up is definitely spooky. But, the with the amount of information google stores, I’m not surprised that it would have a record of something like this, and the fact that so many articles about it came up leads me to think that it was a very popular story at one time. I was shocked, however, when I looked through the first five pages of my google search and only found one thing about me, my instagram. I know that there are multiple Jessica Deemers, and some with very unfortunate pasts, but I was expecting to find more of my social media because Im pretty active on it. Maybe the other Jessica Deemer’s who’s social medias popped up are more active than I am or have more followers than I do. My instagram was the only social media sight of mine that I saw, but I wouldn’t say thats the site I’m most active on. When I looked at images, the first pictures to come up were of the girl who was killed, which I expected after seeing all of the articles. There were a couple pictures of me, but they were from videos of myself dancing in productions at my dance studio and one picture of me dancing from the Morning Call. I only saw one picture from a social media site. When I looked at the videos, a lot of them were of me or peers from my dance studio dancing. This surprised me, because I didn’t really think those videos had many views. When I used other searching sites, such as Bing, I got similar results. When I typed in my full name, including my middle name, an article and pictures of me at my high school graduation from the Morning Call was one of the first links to appear. However, none of the pictures were of me.

Overall, I think that the more active I am on social media and the internet in general, the more likely I am to show up when my name is googled. Hopefully, in the future, I appear when googled, but on more professional sights, such as LinkedIn. I don’t really plan on keeping or remaining active on my social media as I get older.  This could make it harder for me to be found when googled, however social media isn’t the only way one can be found on the internet. If I create a website or a blog and am active on it, I could easily be found there. Overall, I learned the more active I am on the internet, the more likely I am to show up.

Expanding My Domain Knowledge

Tonight, I attended a talk, Domains In Progress, hosted by the digital learning team. Adam Croom both attended and spoke at this talk, and I learned many interesting facts about the process of creating a domain.  In order to create a successful domain, one must know the building blocks of creativity. A domain is aimed at the goal of self expression. No two domains should be the same. Our domains should be personal, and reflects things like our interests, passions, hobbies, and lifestyles. This is difficult for many students, like myself, because we’ve never done anything like this before. It tends to make us anxious and feel stressed, mainly because we feel like we are doing it wrong. We are so used to online sights that have a template for us, like twitter, Instagram, facebook, and snapchat. However, a domain can be whatever you want to make it. We need to own it, and take time to develop it as a new piece of our online history. This being said, it will definitely take time to fully develop our domains. You can just do it in a couple minutes. It will take month, even years, to experiment with your domain and find out a way that it will represent you. The more we learn about what we can do with our domains, the more we can teach each other. For example, Adam said he loved watching students teach each other how to do certain things to their domains. Adam also said he he encourages teachers and professors to put few guidelines on our domains, because it will restrict us from expressing ourselves. After all, it is our own domain. I enjoyed when the professors spoke during the presenations and shared what their domain and their students domain looked like. It was interesting to see all the diversity in the layout of domains and what information was shared on domains. It really wrapped up how domains are about creativity and self expression, we have to be willing to take risks and be presentations.

Resources for Digital Identities

 

 

Source 1

This article explains the creation of various social media sights leading people to creating secret online identities. Certain websites are being created that make it very simple for people to hide their true identity on the internet. The article explained that it’s hard to hide certain things about ourselves in person, but online, it very simple, so people take advantage of that. Creating an online identity allows people to express things that they don’t want a certain audience to hear. They can also confess certain things to an audience that they know will be supportive of them. The article highlighted creating an online identity doesn’t mean changing everything about yourself, but more so picking and choosing what you want people to know about you and choosing the audience you are exposing yourself to. I chose this article because is emphasized why people get so invested in there online identities. The article carefully explained that the reasons why online identities are so important and appealing to many people, including young teens.  This article not only explained why people love creating online identities, but why some people are skeptical about putting information online. Certain online services wish to have users sign in with one ID, putting all their history into one account. This can be scary to some people. For example, if somebody trusts a company and shares information with them, this then becomes knowledge to another company. The author did a great job at emphasizing how one must establish trusting relationships with these sites before you decide to share certain information with them. Seeing different prospectives on online identities allowed for me so easily see the pros and the cons. This article relates to what we are currently talking about in class because the last article we just read, Who Owns the Digital You by Tim Chambers, mentioned how online identities lead to giving up privacy. Although we may feel like it’s a good idea to give out information on the internet to a reliable source, we our giving up our privacy. Websites are taking away our freedom in order to benefit themselves. Just as mentioned in, The Online Identity Crisis, the more information we give out to create an online identity for ourselves, the more history the web has of us, tracking our every move.

Source 2

I thought this article was interesting because it went through the process of verifying ones identity in person versus on the internet. I chose it because it broke down the components of an online identity, which made me realize theres more to it than I thought. It also brings awareness to the negative effects of online identities.  Because technology is heavily relied on, things such as transactions and data collection are being done on devices like computers. Large amounts of information are being held on the internet with limited privacy, so things such as identity theft and fraud are occurring. Our identity is used for several tasks, but we often get lost in what identity really means. This article helped to break down this concept. For example, it stated that identity is the collection of information that describe ones entity which can be divided up into three main entities, assets, individuals, and legal entities. These are things that I was not aware of before reading reading the article. It also introduced the concept of an identity system, which has four key roles: users, identity providers, relying parties, and governance body.  I chose this article mainly because it presented information that many people, including myself, our unaware of when it comes to online identities. In an organized way, it broke down the components of an identity and reflected on what one’s identity really means. This also relates to what we are currently talking about in class because we just discussed how many of us do things on the internet without understand how it really works. For example, we say yes to privacy conditions we don’t really understand. That relates to this article because we give the internet information about our identity without really realizing all our identity can be used for. Websites typically don’t tell us that we are at risk for somebody stealing our identity online, which this article mentioned as “fraud”. So, we give the internet the information it requests without really thinking about the consequences. However, these consequences still exists, and we are putting ourselves at great risk.

 

 

 

 

How Technology Impacted My Life

Technology has been a part of my life for as long as I can remember. As a child, I would play computer games on our family computer in the living room countless hours. I remember playing video games with my friends and siblings, entertained by our enormous collection of games. As I got older, more and more toys started to become technology based. I went from playing barbies to playing virtual reality games on hand held devices and being glued to my computer screen. When I was about ten years old, a popular electronic for kids my age was a DS. All of my friends had one, and I was absolutely thrilled when I received mine on Christmas morning. My friends and I would constantly trade DS games, fascinated by all of the different options. Although the technology was nothing like it is for children today, it was still a big part of my childhood. My family always reminds me how we used to have family game nights and play together on the Wii. We would play game after game together, never getting tired of it. When my friends would come over, we would always run to the TV and turn on the gaming station. Growing up with technology had a positive impact on me because I had experience for when I needed to use technology in school. For example, when were were old enough to use computers in class, I had already been exposed to one and knew how to operate it. I even became the family member in my household that my parents would turn to if they couldn’t figure out something on their phones or computers. This made me realize the positive impact that growing up with technology had on me because I was able to use my skills to not only benefit myself but others as well. However, there are some times where I wish I wasn’t so reliant on technology. When I was a junior in high school, I started having issues with my laptop. It was old and began to break down. When it broke, I felt like there was so much I couldn’t do. Almost all of my homework assignments involved a laptop, and without one, I could not do my work. I felt helpless, and it made me realized how unfair school is to kids without technology skills or access to computers. It puts them at a disadvantage compared to the other students. Technology is expensive, and not everybody can afford to have devices such as smart phones or laptops. Although technology is already heavily relied on in schools, I believe that this dependency will only continue to grow. In high school and college, computer access is necessary to students for things such as assignments and class websites. In elementary school, we started to learn basic computer skills in the first grade. However, this was mainly just for fun, and our assignments were always handwritten. I predict that in the future, kids as young as the age of seven will be required to do assignments and tests on computers. In fact, I have a little sister who is currently in fifth grade, and last year, her class had a website. On this website, items such as the class agenda and homework assignments were posted. Families with computers and internet access had advantage because they could see what their child was doing in school. I predict children will become more dependent on technology and learn more complex technology skills at a younger age. Even today, I am noticing very young children who know how to use devices such as cell phones and iPads. I received a cell phone when I was about eleven, but didn’t really know how to properly operate it until I was about thirteen. Now, children as young as three years old know how to play games and take pictures on smartphones. Even though I would like to be less dependent on technology, I know that our society is going to grow more and more dependent on these devices, and it would be difficult if I were to isolate myself from these new advancements.